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Preface: Syrian government forces, backed by its ally Russian forces, continued their military escalation on cities and towns of Eastern Ghouta in Damascus countryside, despite signing sustained agreements on May 4, 2017, that identified de-escalation zones in Syria. Representatives of sponsored states in the Astana Talks (Russia, Turkey and Iran) signed Memorandum of Understanding/MOU/  to establish de-escalation zones[1] in Syria; one of the most important items of the agreement is that establishment of de-escalation zones will initially last 6 months, extendable automatically by consensus guarantor states. The agreement also states...
Packground: Despite the agreement on deciding "de-escalation" zones in Syria between several international actors to the Syrian conflict, indiscriminate and deliberate attacks have not fully ceased. Recording violations of international law and of "de-escalation” agreement are still reported on a daily basis in Syria. Targeting public facilities are not the last of these violations, in particular hospitals and medical centers, which the pace of their attacks increased in September 2017 when at least two medical centers were bombed in Eastern Ghouta prior to the Astana conference on 14 September 2017, in addition to six attacks against...
Preface: It was only one day after the detainee Yusuf Aba Zaid got out of the Syrian jails when he was killed as a result of shelling Western Ghariyah located in Daraa countryside by the Syrian regular forces. However, Yusuf had spent five consecutive years in the Syrian security apparatus-operated detention facilities where he was subjected to various forms of torture and ill-treatment like many other detainees. In 2012, the Air Intelligence Forces Branch in Daraa arrested Yusuf Aba Zaid and transferred him among number of security branches during the five-year detention. On June...